Logic Model


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My research is driven by my general interest in the affordances and constraints of technology-enhanced learning environments for second language (L2) learners’ development of language proficiency as well as pragmatic competence in intercultural communication.

In this particular model, I am interested in exploring the effectiveness of asynchronous online conversation practice, when used to facilitate pragmatic awareness-raising activities, in enhancing L2 students’ pragmatic performance.

The noticing theory (Schmidt, 1995) suggests that L2 learners must first demonstrate a conscious awareness of some particular form in the input before any subsequent processing or intake of that noticed form can take place. Research on awareness-raising approach also suggests that explicit and inductive instruction on pragmatic conventions followed by awareness-raising activities can successfully enhance L2 students’ L2 pragmatic competence (Narita, 2012). However, due to the temporal and spatial constrains of traditional foreign language classrooms, it is hard for L2 teachers to conduct consciousness-raising activities in class.

With its asynchronous and trans-spatial feature, asynchronous conversation platforms could potentially solve this problem and make the learning of pragmatics in L2 class more effective. The underlying assumption of the logic model above is that asynchronous conversation platforms allow students time to think before respond. If used to host group pragmatic practice, the asynchronous conversation practice can lower students’ pragmatic pressure and allow students room to develop metacognitive awareness regarding the pragmatic knowledge. If that is the case, then it will enhance students’ pragmatic performance. That is, students’ performance in communicating intended message in given socio-cultural context and interpreting/responding to interlocutor’s message as it was intended.



Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness, learning and interlanguage pragmatics. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 21-42). New York: Oxford University Press.

Narita, R. (2012). The effects of pragmatic consciousness-raising activity on the development of pragmatic awareness and use of hearsay evidential markers for learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Journal of Pragmatics, 55(1), 1-29.

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